Price surges in the cost of natural gas
can usually be
traced to just three reasons: excessive demand during
heavy use periods such as an icy January blast, fewer
gas reserves in storage and operational problems with
pipelines or equipment. Those are the findings of the
nation's energy experts who have studied the issue for
Using Less and Paying More
Most of us have probably heard a frustrated consumer say,
"I turned down the thermostat and my gas bill still went
up." That consumer may wrongly assume because of what
happened, that conservation — using less — "doesn't pay."
But, experts who have studied the natural gas industry
have found instances where lower use can translate into
higher bills. In these situations, a consumer could reduce
use because of a warmer period during the winter, but the
per unit cost of the natural gas was considerably higher
than in past seasons. This is just what happened in the
winter of 1996-1997. In January 1997, the largest monthly
increase in the cost of natural gas, 4.8 percent, was
Historically, situations that lead consumers to cry foul
are those where higher than average gas costs coincide
with higher than average use, especially during an extended
period of cold weather. In these instances, it is not
uncommon for bills to double.
In 1997, the federal energy agency listed nearly 445,000
residential and 51,661 commercial customers in the state.
Average prices paid for natural gas purchased from local
distribution companies by residential and commercial
customers were $5.69 and $4.88 per thousand cubic feet,
respectively. The national average prices for natural gas
were $6.94 and $5.79, respectively.
Natural gas reaches consumers every day through buried
pipelines in America and around the world. All natural
gas used comes from just three types of sources: domestic
wells, withdrawals from storage or imports. During the
summer, consumer demand can easily be met from domestic
and imported sources with the excess being placed in
storage facilities. In the winter, demand for gas almost
always exceeds production and imports, so the gas in
storage is used to meet seasonal heating needs.
In Nebraska, production from natural gas wells, primarily
in the Panhandle, totaled only 1.66 billion cubic feet in
1997. Since gas produced in the state meets less than 2
percent of the needs, natural gas must be imported.
A Changing Industry
Since price ceilings on natural gas were removed in 1979,
the industry has gradually been evolving. In 1993, the
industry was fully deregulated.
During the past 20 years, the price of natural gas has
gone from a high, but stable environment to one that is
considerably lower, but far more volatile. For example,
the annual well head price of gas declined by more than
50 percent, adjusted for inflation, between 1983 and 1998.
A recent example of volatility occurred on December 4, 1998,
when the spot price at the national hub in Henry, Louisiana,
hit the extremely low level of $1.01 per million British
Thermal Units (BTUs) only to rise to $1.55 the next day.
More Changes Coming?
Even though the natural gas industrywas fully deregulated in
1993, less than half the states have allowed consumers supply
choice options. According to the American Gas Association,
54 million households use natural gas, but only 20 million
can choose a natural gas supplier.
In Nebraska, only customers served by KN Energy in central
and western Nebraska have a choice among five suppliers. As
a result of the latest balloting by these natural gas consumers,
about 22 percent of eligible natural gas customers chose a
supplier other than their traditional one or an affiliated
Next year, the Legislature's Urban Affairs Committee will
begin a multi-year study of deregulation issues and the
natural gas industry.
Presently, there are four investor-owned utilities that
serve nearly two-thirds of the customers in the state.
Customers in 15 towns, including Omaha, are served by
publicly-owned municipal systems.
“M” and “A”
Another trend that is reshaping the industry is
mergers and acquisitions.
Almost weekly, a natural gas or electric
utility is involved in a merger or buyout of another gas
or electric system. Because publicly-owned gas and
electric systems are prevalent in the state, these trends
have been somewhat muted. In 1986, seven investor-owned
natural gas systems operated in the state. Today, there
are just four. The past several years have seen several
systems — Stuart, Wahoo, Scribner and Neligh — moving from
being served by investor-owned.
Editor's Note: Material
for this article was based in part on "Why Do Natural
Gas Prices Fluctuate So Much?" from the Energy Information
Administration. More information on this subject can be
U.S. DOE Energy Information
Plan on spending more to heat your home this
According to the Short-term Energy Outlook from
the Energy Information Administration, natural gas prices
will be up and if seasonal temperatures return to
normal—last year was unusually mild in parts of the nation —
Nebraskans could be spending a lot more to ward off the
A Third or More
Current projections estimate a 37 percent hike in the
cost of natural gas. Most natural gas bills in Nebraska
are divided in three parts, one of which is the cost of
gas. The actual cost of the gas is usually less than half
the total bill for residential users. The other two
parts—cost of retail service and transmission — do not
fluctuate as much as the price of the fuel.
The Outlook found electric utilities were
increasing natural gas use — often used to power turbines
that are operated when electricity use is high, especially
during hot summers. As a result, natural gas stored for
winter use was being depleted faster than expected and could
lead to higher prices when winter's bitter north winds begin
The Energy Information Administration's near-term projection
for propane prices and demand has not been issued. However,
customers should also expect price increases since propane
can be produced from either natural gas or crude oil, which
is also up over last year by about 24 percent. Some independent
oil market watchers have said oil prices could rise an
additional 25 percent to around $25 a barrel by the end
of the year, if rising demand continues without an increase
In July, the Energy Office received $1.457
the U.S. Department of Energy to weatherize the homes of
needy Nebraskans. An estimated 661 homes will be less costly
to heat next winter after improvements are made in the
Weatherization reduces the amount of energy used to heat
a typical low-income household by 20 to 30 percent, saving
an estimated $126 each year on the heating
bill according to the U.S. Department of Energy.
Weatherization also lessens the need for imported fuels
and reduces the need for other types of social services
such as utility bill paying, housing and health care.
Studies have shown that lower income households spend about
15 percent of their income for energy. This amount is more
than four times that spent by higher income households.
Typical weatherization services include diagnostic testing,
installing attic and wall insulation, sealing ducts, adding
caulking and weatherstripping, insulating water heating
systems and performing heating system tune-ups.
Regional agencies across the state provide weatherization services
to homeowners and renters. Typically, about one-third of the homes
are occupied by elderly Nebraskans.
Since the Low Income Weatherization Assistance Program
began in 1979, $73.06 million have been spent to weatherize
49,509 homes in Nebraska.
For more information about weatherization services offered
by the state, contact one of the service providers listed in
the map or
Pete Davis in the Energy Office.
tips were compiled from several sources including:
Energy Savers: Tips on Saving
Energy and Money at
Getting a Leg Up on Your Heating Bills
Warm air leaking into your home during the
summer and out of your home during the winter can waste
a substantial portion of your energy dollars.
One of the quickest dollar
saving tasks you can do is caulk, seal and weatherstrip all
seams, cracks and openings to the outside. You can save ten
percent or more on your energy bill by reducing the air
leaks in your home, according to the U.S. Department of
First, test your home for air tightness.
On a windy day, hold a lit incense stick next
to your windows, doors, electrical boxes, plumbing fixtures,
electrical outlets, ceiling fixtures, attic hatches and other
locations where there is a possible air path to the outside.
If the smoke stream travels horizontally,
you have located an air leak that may need caulking, sealing or
Caulk and weatherstrip doors and windows that leak air.
Caulk and seal air leaks where plumbing, ducting or electrical
wiring penetrates through exterior walls, floors, ceilings and soffits
Install rubber gaskets behind outlet and switch plates on
Look for dirty spots in your insulation, which often indicate holes
where air leaks into and out of your house. You can seal the holes
by stapling sheets of plastic over the holes and caulking the edges
of the plastic.
Install storm windows over single-pane windows or replace them
with double-pane windows. Storm windows as much as double the R-value
of single-pane windows and they can help reduce drafts, water
condensation and frost formation.
As a less costly and less permanent
alternative, you can use a heavy-duty, clear plastic
sheet on a frame or tape clear plastic film to the inside
of your window frames during the cold winter months.
Remember, the plastic must be sealed tightly to the
frame to help reduce infiltration.
What is Weatherization?
Sealing homes by caulking, weatherstripping and other air
infiltration measures, and installing attic, wall and floor insulation.
When the fireplace is not in use, keep the flue
damper tightly closed. A chimney is designed specifically
for smoke to escape, so until you close it, warm air escapes.
24 hours a day.
For new construction, reduce exterior wall leaks by
either installing house wrap, taping the joints of exterior
sheathing, or comprehensively caulking and sealing the exterior
If you have heating or cooling ducts located in an
attic or crawl space, make sure all duct joints are sealed
with mastic (not duct) tape and that ducts are securely
connected to register boots.
LB 755, passed by the Unicameral and signed
into law by Governor Mike Johanns during the last legislative
session, requires all new state and state-funded buildings
to meet the 1998 International Energy Conservation Code.
The Code also applies to additions and modifications to state
buildings. Nebraska becomes the first state to adopt the
1998 Code according to the Building Code Assistance Project.
The International Code replaces the 1995 Model Energy Code,
which has been the basis for Energy Office incentives such
as low-interest Dollar and Energy Saving Loans and Mortgages.
The International Energy Conservation Code was developed with
the goal of conserving energy without unnecessarily increasing
construction costs or restricting the use of new materials,
products or methods of construction. The Code is updated
regularly based on comments from code officials and others.
The new law also extends minimum energy efficiency requirements
to all other new buildings that are built using public funds
such as low and moderate income housing as well as some local
The Department of Administrative Services has authority to
waive or modify code requirements as needed. The Energy Office
is writing rules and regulations to address procedural questions
in applying the Code. The proposed rules will address such
issues as when in the design process the plans should be submitted,
how should requests for variances to the Code be handled and
should plans drawn by professional engineers and architects
be reviewed. The rules should be completed by the end of the
More information about the International Code is available
from Kirk Conger in the Energy Office.
The Nebraska Commission on Housing and Homelessness
scheduled the conference, "Tools for Building Communities
in the 21st Century. A Policy Forum and Training
on Housing and Homelessness Practices," on October 4-5 at
the Cornhusker Hotel in Lincoln.
For more information, contact Lara Huskey at the Department
of Economic Development, phone 402-471-3759, email
Editor's note: The
Energy Office is providing this information on straw bale
construction as a service to Quarterly readers.
Publication of this article in the Quarterly
does not constitute an endorsement of the building practice.
Straw Bale Buildings Return to the Prairie
As pioneers settled in Nebraska, they had to
deal with one
of the realities of the Plains. Trees were scarce. In the
east and central parts of the state, many initial homes were
often constructed of sod or dugouts in banks or hills. In the
Sandhills, where even sod was rare — bales of straw, or
prairie meadow hay, wetland reeds and even tumbleweeds —
The arrival of the horse-powered baler in the 1880s — and
mechanized ones even later — made straw a popular building
material through the early 1940s. Schools, churches, homes and
farm and ranch buildings were created with bale walls, reviving
building techniques used centuries earlier in Europe and other
parts of the world.
Today, bale building is experiencing a worldwide revival.
Builders in Europe, Asia and the Americas are blending old
techniques with new technologies to construct energy efficient,
comfortable, easy to build, innovative and creative buildings.
The uniqueness of building with straw bales is its compatibility
with other building methods such as concrete, cob, adobe, timber
frame and steel.
Tested at an insulating value of R-48 or greater — twice
the insulation value of most homes — bales are energy-efficient
building blocks. A bale with a thickness of 14 to 18 inches is
also a natural soundproofing material. Nebraskan Lucille Cross
spent her childhood in a hay bale house. She frequently tells
the story of the time when the family was inside playing cards,
unaware that a tornado was swirling outside.
Stacked and secured within post-and-beam or load-bearing
structural systems, bales can be coated with stucco and plaster
that preserve the bales and add structural strength.
Typically, 300 bales are used for every 1,000 square feet of
There is no need to wrap the walls to prevent air leakage.
Conventional roofing can be used. Living roofs combining standard
roofing materials with earth and compost to sustain plants and add
mass. Full or partial basements, slab on grade or a crawl space are
workable as are standard footings and foundations. Properly
constructed and maintained bale buildings can easily last for
several hundred years.
A bale building is ideal for passive solar design. Stuccoed walls
absorb and store the day's radiated heat. Properly orienting a
building on the site aids in solar energy gain, protection
from winter winds and snow and summer storms and hot breezes.
Cheap to Pricey
Open interior space with few halls and walls helps keep material
costs down and eases utility costs by allowing air to flow easily
throughout all spaces with minimal equipment. Building costs can
be highly variable, but generally range from $5 to $120 a square
foot. The national average for new home construction is $53 a square
foot. Homes constructed of bales have been built for as low as
$5,000 and as much as $200,000.
There are other efficiencies in the use of straw beyond forming
walls from a crop byproduct or binding crop residue into bales
of standard sizes. The use of these crop residues creates new
markets for something that would otherwise be burned, buried or
left to decay.
Straw can also be chopped for use as a component of a "bioblock"
— a mix of other recyclable materials including plastics and wood
— used like a concrete masonry unit or concrete block. Straw can
be compressed into board form for use as plywood, sheathing,
flooring and other building products. Plants manufacturing products
from straw have been appearing from Texas to Canada in the past
several years. One manufacturer uses straw to create a variety
of consumer products ranging from business cardholders and brushes
to bird feeders and downspout splash guards. Of course, straw has
been used as a binder in bricks, stucco and adobe for centuries.
The Straw Bale Association of Nebraska, founded in 1998, is a
channel for information, a network for anyone interested in the
revival of Nebraska's best building idea and a resource for balers,
builders and enthusiasts. For more information about straw bale
construction or the Straw Bale Association of Nebraska, contact
Joyce Coppinger of Re:Build Associates, phone 402-483-5135
and 800-910-3019 or by email
On September 2, the U.S. Department of
close the door of opportunity for a series of small business
grants. That date is the deadline for grant applications to
be received by the federal agency.
The grants are designed for small businesses to pursue
innovative research on important problems facing American
agriculture and rural areas of the nation that could lead
to a significant public benefit. Small businesses are
defined as having fewer than 500 employees.
According to the USDA, up to 80 grants of up to $70,000
each could be awarded nationwide. Research applications
in the following areas will be considered:
Plant production and protection;
Animal production and protection;
Air, water and soils;
Food science and nutrition;
Rural and community development;
Industrial applications; and
Marketing and trade.
For example, grant requests in the area of rural and
community development" ...should not concentrate primarily
on the development of new technology, but rather on applying
new or existing technology to address important issues or
solving significant problems. The proposals do not need to
be centered on agriculture, but may be focused on any
area—information systems, education, health care — that
has the potential of providing significant benefits to rural
The Ag Department suggests that successful grant winners
will include a market feasibility study as part of the
six month project.
Several suggested areas for projects included:
development of income or employment opportunities,
improvements in service delivery by local
governments and public institutions, and
Editor's Note: The following
is an excerpt from Governor Johanns' testimony on electric utility
deregulation before the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural
Resources in June.
The complete text of his remarks can be found
at the Governors' Public Power Alliance web site at
Public Power Alliance Governor Johanns and Tennessee
Governor Sundquist serve as co-chairs of the Alliance.
"Before we rush headlong into yet another federal experiment in
the deregulation of an essential public service, perhaps we ought
to pause and take stock of the legacy of prior initiatives. First,
let's recognize that the absence or reduction of regulation does
not in itself necessarily increase competition. Without the proper
market characteristics, competition will not develop and consumers
may pay the price. We are finding this to have been the case in
"And surprisingly, in larger cities, too. In Council Bluffs,
Iowa—population 54,000—the local investor-owned utility tried
to open the electric market to other suppliers. Not a single
utility—other than a subsidiary of the local utility— wanted to
compete for customers in this test of competition in the electric
industry in Iowa. Can we realistically expect electric industry
competition when population density in some rural areas is less
than two customers per mile of line?
"Airline deregulation has resulted in a dramatic loss of air
service in rural Nebraska with enplanements in our smaller
cities down more than 56 percent since 1978, and two of
those airports—Columbus and Sidney—now closed to commercial
air service entirely. In the railroad industry, the story
is much the same. Nearly 2,000 miles — roughly one-quarter
of the active rail lines in Nebraska have been abandoned
since 1982 and our vital agricultural industry, especially
in remote parts of the state, is finding it ever more
difficult and expensive to get products to market.
"As you know, when it comes to electricity Nebraska is
unique. We have a longstanding tradition of enjoying the
benefits of what we commonly refer to as public power —
every single resident receives electric power from a
municipality, public power district, or rural electric
cooperative. No other state can make that claim. At the
beginning of the century., Nebraska Senator George Norris,
the father of the Tennessee Valley Authority, fought to
create public power to give consumers local control, reliable,
service and low rates. In the late 1960s, long before the
Energy Policy Act of 1992 required deregulation of
the wholesale electric industry, Nebraska had wholesale
wheeling. Today that pioneering tradition continues, and
Nebraskans are better off because of it."
Study to Determine Impact of Electric System Deregulation
In 1996, the Legislature directed its Natural Resources
Committee to study the state's electric system and the
affect of deregulation on the nation's only electric system
owned in its entirety by consumers.
The study is nicknamed "LR455" because the legislative
resolution—or LR for short— authorizing the study was numbered
455. The study will be completed at the end of this year.
The study is being guided by a task force and 40 advisory
committee members. The task force is comprised of a project
manager,facilitator and six Nebraska Power Association
representatives. This group primarily functions as the
Nebraska is the only state with no investor-owned electric
companies operating within its borders, so a federal energy
information agency believes the state could be affected
differently than all other states by federal proposals to
restructure the electric industry.
The restructuring report identified 164 utilities serving
almost 855,000 customers in the state. According to the Energy
Information Administration in 1997, 55 percent of the electricity
in the state came from coal and the two nuclear power plants in
the state supplied 22 percent. Virtually all the coal used for
electricity production comes from Wyoming's Powder River Basin.
The average price of electricity in the state is 5.32 cents
per kilowatthour, which is the twelfth lowest in the nation.
The national price average in 1997 was 6.86 cents. Nebraska's
low cost of electricity is due, in part, to the proximity of
the coal fields and low transportation costs associated with
moving the coal from Wyoming to the power plants.
The average age of the state's generating systems is not
young: coal and oil-fired plants average 21 years, nuclear
plants average 22 years, gas-fired plants average 30 years
and hydroelectric plants average 46 years.
Between 1986 and 1996, the growth rates for various types
of customers ranged from two percent annually for residential
customers, to three percent for commercial customers and more
than five percent for industrial customers.
The amount of pollution emissions related to electricity
generation ranked the state at 33rd, 35th and 38th for
sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide and carbon dioxide emissions,
Heat Pumps, Ethanol in Buses and Energy Savings in Buildings
In June, the Nebraska Energy Office received three new
competitively awarded grants totaling $157,000 from the
U.S. Department of Energy. The grants will help the agency
promote geothermal heat pumps for schools, test a blend
of ethanol and diesel in Omaha buses and help reduce the
state's Army National Guard' s energy costs in its facilities.
In-kind contributions and cost sharing by the agency's partners
will add $134,000 to the projects.
Specific details about the projects:
The Geothermal Heat Pump Training Program will team three electric utilities.
Nebraska Public Power District, Omaha Public Power District and Lincoln
Electric System. along with Central Community College
and Energy Office staff to provide information to school officials, architects
and engineers and provide training for well drillers and installers of
geothermal heat pump installations. The one-year grant is for
$50,000. Nebraska, a national leader in geothermal heat pumps, has an
estimated 30 systems currently installed in schools. For example, one
district, Lincoln Public Schools, expects to save $1.75 million in 20 years
from the heat pump systems installed in four new elementary schools.
The Omaha Clean Cites Coalition Oxy-Diesel Project will fuel
10 Metro Area Transit Authority buses with a 15 percent
ethanol/80 percent diesel blend for one year to test the ability
of the fuel blend to reduce pollution. A special fuel blending agent
makes the diesel/ethanol fuel usable without engine modifications.
Other partners on this $42,800 grant include the Nebraska Grain
Sorghum Board and the Nebraska Corn Marketing and Development Board.
The Federal Energy Management Program/Nebraska Army National Guard
effort will allow the hiring of a resource efficiency manager by the
Guard so that energy saving improvements identified earlier can be
made in the 1.3 million square feet of federal and state military
buildings under the Guard's jurisdiction. This $64,500 grant is
for one year.
Since 1996, the state's Energy Office has won 11 competitive
federal grants totaling $1.432 million. Six of the grants,
totaling $1.15 million, were for housing-related activities
that expanded the agency's services to the state's builders,
realtors and local housing officials.
The Nebraska Energy Quarterly features
questions asked about 6% Dollar and Energy Saving Loans.
Loan forms may be obtained from participating
lenders or the Energy Office.
Questions and Answers...
5% Dollar and Energy Saving Loans
Have there been recent changes to the maximum amount
that can be borrowed?
Yes. Effective June 7, 1999, you may borrow up to $25,000
for eligible energy saving improvements in a single-family
dwelling and up to $75,000 for a multi-family building, which
is two or more units. Before, the maximum loan amounts were
$20,000 and $60,000, respectively. Other loan maximums remain
the same: $100,000 for small businesses, non-profits and Rebuild
Nebraska partners; $150,000 for Climate Wise Partners; $75,000
for farm and ranch operations; $175,000 for political subdivisions,
except schools and state government; $100,000 for rural nursing
homes located outside first class or larger cities; and $150,000
for telecommunications projects and alternate fuel projects.
Are the maximum loan amounts applicable to the borrower or the
building or operation?
In the case of a single-family home or a multi-family building,
the maximum loan amount applies to the building, not the borrower.
Thus, if a borrower owns five single family dwellings, up to
$25,000 could be borrowed on each dwelling, provided the borrower
qualifies for a loan with a participating lender. The same would
apply to multi-family buildings. The borrower could get a loan of
up to $75,000 for energy saving improvements on each building.
For businesses, non-profits, Rebuild Nebraska and Climate Wise
partners, farms and ranches, and political subdivisions, the
maximum loan amount applies to the business or operation,
not a building.
For telecommunications and alternate fuel projects, the maximum
loan amount applies to the borrower, who may borrow up to
$150,00 for telecommunications projects as well as $150,000 for
alternate fuel projects.
If a borrower has not reached the maximum loan amount
on a home, building, business or operation, can additional
loans be taken out for eligible work?
A borrower may secure additional funds up to the maximum
loan amount for new eligible projects. If a borrower already
has a loan for energy saving improvements totaling $20,000
on a single family dwelling, the same borrower, or a different
borrower if the house has since sold, could get a loan of up to
$5,000 for additional work on the same house. This interpretation
applies to all loan categories, where additional loans for energy
saving improvements may be obtained until the loan limit is reached.
If a borrower is making additional energy saving improvements,
does the loan have to be a new, separate one or can the loan be
combined with the earlier one on the same property?
Whether the loan will be separate or combined with a previous
loan, is at the discretion of the lender. However, if the new
project is combined into one loan with an older loan, the
maturity date for the combined loans cannot extend beyond
the maximum allowable term on the original loan. For example,
if the original loan had a term of ten years and had been in
repayment for four years, the new loan will combine the old
and the new projects. The loan could not be written for and
amortized for a period longer than six years.
What are Rebuild Nebraska
and Climate Wise partners?
Rebuild Nebraska is a voluntary effort to increase the use of
energy efficient technologies in commercial and multi-family
buildings. Climate Wise is a voluntary energy efficiency and
waste minimization partnership for manufacturers. Partners
are eligible for Dollar and Energy Saving Loans as well as
additional technical assistance in identifying and financing the
improvements. Contact Jack Osterman for more information on these
Can anyone finance waste minimization projects as
well as energy efficiency projects with a Dollar and
Energy Saving Loan?
Any Nebraska business—commercial, industrial, or agricultural —
can finance waste minimization projects with a Dollar and
Energy Saving Loan. Potential projects include pollution
prevention assessments; equipment to renew or recapture
solvents, chemicals and abrasives; projects modifying processes
to require fewer or lower toxicity solvents; projects to convert
bulk, reusable or lower-volume packing and shipping materials;
projects to control inventory to reduce volume of wasted
materials; projects which produce new or additional products
from current waste streams; projects which separate toxic
constituents from the general waste streams; recovery and
reuse of waste oil or wood in approved heaters and boilers;
recycling equipment; combustion of waste for energy recovery
in approved burners; compaction of waste prior to landfilling;
and recovery and reuse of waste oil from vehicle fleets.
Waste minimization loans at 2.5% interest are available
from participating local lenders for eligible projects
that are completed by December 31, 1999. Potential projects
must be described in the Energy Office's Waste Minimization
Project Summary, Form 36, and the Summary submitted to the
Energy Office for review and approval. Projects cannot be
started or contracted for prior to the Energy Office signing
a Commitment Agreement with the applicant's lender to
participate in the loan and purchase its share of the loan.
Project Summary forms are available from the Energy Office
or can be downloaded or printed from the agency's web site:
Nebraska Energy Office
Do you have to submit more than one form for some
projects such as doors, windows, roofs and siding?
If so, what application forms must be completed and
sent to the lender along with the project estimates?
Application Form 2, Door, Window, Wall and Ceiling
Projects, must be completed and submitted by the loan
applicant for all the projects listed on that form.
In addition to Form 2, the loan applicant and contractor
must complete and submit Form 2/Siding if the wall
insulation project includes siding; Form 2/Roofing if
the attic or ceiling insulation project includes roof
repair or replacement; and Form 2/Window/Door if the
project is for the replacement of windows or exterior
doors. All borrower forms can be dowloaded from the
agency's web site, Nebraska Energy Office,
and submitted to the agency for processing.
In accordance with the American Disabilities
Act, the state will provide reasonable
accommodation to persons with disabilities. If
you need reasonable accommodation to participate
in any program or activity listed in this
publication, please contact the Energy Office
at 402-471-2186 to coordinate arrangements.
Upon request, this publication may be available
in alternative formats.
This material was prepared with the support of
the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grant No.
DE-FG47-92CE60410. However, any opinions, findings,
conclusions, or recommendations expressed herein
are those of the author and do not necessarily
reflect the views of DOE.