Rebuild Strikes Gold in Nebraska City and Hastings
Nebraska City - In the past several months,
Rebuild Otoe County effort has moved from concept
to hard work to concrete results.
The Nebraska Energy Office's proposal for Rebuild Otoe
County was awarded $100,000 in funding by the U.S.
Department of Energy. This localized undertaking in Nebraska
City aims to show owners of historically significant commercial
and multi-family buildings ways to make these homes and businesses
more energy efficient without destroying the architectural
integrity of the vintage buildings.
Saving A Piece of History
By the end of March, the local Rebuild Otoe County
coordinator, Amy Reese, had recruited four partners who
owned five buildings. Three of these buildings are on the
Historic Register or eligible for inclusion on the Register.
These buildings date from the 1860s to the 1890s. Energy
Office staff performed energy assessments of the buildings
and provided the owners with suggested options along with
methods of financing the improvements.
Rebuild Otoe County is not the first historical
preservation project in the state the Energy Office has
aided. In the 1980s, more than $625,000 in oil overcharge
funds leveraged local funds to make energy efficiency
improvements in five historically significant courthouses
in Antelope, Gosper, Hamilton, Kimball and Pawnee Counties.
The projects ranged from replacing windows to adding insulation
to replacing heating and cooling systems and boilers.
For more information about Rebuild Otoe County, contact
Amy Reese at River Country Economic Development Corporation at
402-873-4293 in Nebraska City.
When you have nearly 1,350 lights in a
multi-purpose commercial building, it is commonplace
to get a four-figure electric bill every month.
That is just one of the reasons Bob Finnigsmier of
Hastings' Landmark Center decided to look at ways to
save on electricity use. Another reason was a firm that
specialized in customized energy efficient lights offered
to evaluate the Center's lighting to find ways in which
the owners could save both energy and dollars.
The Landmark Center is 44 year-old building in Hastings.
Originally the building housed the J.M. McDonald Co. warehouse
and department store. Today, the Hastings Hall of History
and Aspen Art Gallery occupy part of the space of the former
After the review, the company recommended replacing
more than 700 fixtures, ballasts and almost 1,350
fluorescent lamps of various sizes. "After we saw the
report, we asked the company to verify all the costs
and projected savings," Finnigsmier said. "Even then,
we still wanted a second opinion. It's hard to imagine
that simply changing lighting systems can save that much
money or cost that much to replace."
the lighting company suggested contacting the Energy
Office for both verification of the recommendations and
accessing low-interest financing. According to Finnigsmier,
the lighting company analysis suggested dollar savings
could easily total more than $12,000 in a year. However,
to change all the lighting systems recommended would cost
more than $45,000.
The lighting report also suggested making the improvements
would have positive environmental benefits. Based on an
annual reduction of more than 250,000 kilowatthours of
electricity used, the projected savings for just one year
384,400+ pounds of carbon dioxide, a leading cause of
1.486+ million grams of sulfur dioxide, the major
component of acid rain;
640,700+ grams of nitric oxide, the leading cause of
smog and acid precipitation; and
187,000+ pounds of coal.
A kilowatthour is a common measurement of electricity
use and means one kilowatt of electricity supplied
for one hour. Typical households without an electric
water heater consume about 500 kilowatt-hours in an
Partners Get More
Lynn Chamberlin in the Energy Office reviewed
report on the Landmark Center and found the energy and
dollar saving projections to be on target.
"When I went over the report with Landmark's owners,"
"I suggested the firm become a Rebuild Nebraska partner to
enable them access to a low interest loan to finance the
lighting improvements." Chamberlin is the primary Rebuild
contact in Nebraska.
For Finnigsmier, the deciding factor to proceed with the
improvements was the cash flow analysis in the lighting
report. "The projected monthly dollar savings was far greater
than the monthly loan payment," Finnigsmier said. "We could
get new lighting systems, finance the purchase price with
a 6 percent loan and still be able to pocket about $100
a month." The report showed the cost of some of the new
lights could be recovered in less than two years. However,
all the fluorescent fixtures would start paying for
themselves after three and a half years.
The new lighting systems were installed in 1997. Since
then, Finnigsmier has been keeping close tabs on his
electric bills. His records show the Landmark's electric
bills have averaged almost $750 a month less since the
lighting improvements were made. The savings more than
cover the loan payment. "Since we didn't make all the
changes recommended by the lighting company," Finnigsmier
said, "our average savings are a little lower than projected.
But, we are still dollars ahead."
Finnigsmier recommended that other businesses with high
energy costs, consider contacting their local utility or
the state's Energy Office to find ways to reduce energy
use. "It's just plain foolish not to," Finnigsmier said.
"Who wants to spend more than what is needed to run a
Since 1996, the Energy Office has
competitive federal Rebuild America grants totaling
$450,000 from the U.S. Department of Energy. Of this
amount, $100,000 was awarded for Rebuild Otoe County.
Rebuild Nebraska partners are owners of commercial or
multi-family buildings who voluntarily agree to increase
energy efficiency and reduce energy costs in existing
buildings. The Energy Office offers partners access to
services such as free assessments of energy use and
low-cost loans for making improvements.
One of the key barriers to making energy efficiency
improvements can be access to affordable financing.
Under Rebuild Nebraska and Rebuild Otoe County, the
agency attempts to eliminate this barrier where
possible by extending access to 5% Dollar and Energy
Saving Loans for larger commercial ventures. The
agency also provides a customer-specific listing
of financing options available to each partner.
118 And Counting
As of the end of March, the Energy Office had secured
118 Rebuild partners across the state. The agency has
completed 87 energy assessments on 351 buildings totaling
3.67 million square feet. Since Nebraska began Rebuild,
the agency has consistently ranked in the top three
states nationally in performance measurements.
The agency is on track to meet the original goal of 150
partners by the end of June.
For more information about Rebuild Nebraska, contact
Chamberlin in the Energy Office.
Heating and cooling your home uses more energy
and drains more energy dollars than any other system in your
Typically, 44 percent of your utility bill goes for heating
and cooling. What's more, heating and cooling systems in the
United States together emit more than a half billion tons of
carbon dioxide into the atmosphere each year. They also generate
about 24 percent of the nation's sulfur dioxide and 12 percent
of the nitrogen oxides, the chief ingredients in acid rain.
No matter what kind of heating, ventilation and air conditioning
system you have in your house, you can save money and increase
comfort by properly maintaining and upgrading your equipment.
But remember, an energy efficient furnace alone will not have
as great an impact on your energy bills as using the whole house
approach. By combining proper equipment maintenance and improvements
with appropriate insulation, weatherization and thermostat settings,
you can cut your energy bills and your pollution output in half.
Bigger Isn't Always Better
It might surprise you to know that buying a bigger air
conditioning unit won't necessarily make you feel more
comfortable during the hot summer months. In fact, an air
conditioner that is too big for the area it is supposed to
cool will perform less efficiently and less effectively
than a smaller, properly sized unit. This is because air
conditioners work better and remove more humidity if they
run for relatively long periods of time than if they are
continually switching off and on. Longer run times allow
air conditioners to maintain a more constant room temperature
and reduce humidity better.
Sizing is equally important for central air conditioning
systems and needs to be done by professionals. If you have
a central air system in your home, set the fan to shut off
at the same time as the cooling unit or compressor. In other
words, don't use the system's central fan to provide circulation
because it will return humidity to the living spaces. Instead,
use circulation fans in individual rooms.
Other things you might want to consider to make this summer
a cool one:
Whole house fans help cool your home by pulling cool air
through the house and exhausting warm air through the attic.
They are effective when operated at night and when the outside
air is cooler than the inside.
Use ceiling fans and fans aimed at room occupants to
provide additional cooling effect. A good breeze from a
fan can make you feel four to eight degrees cooler because
it increases evaporation from your skin: one of the primary
methods by which your body cools itself. And turn off fans
when you leave a room. Fans don't actually cool the air they
just make you feel cooler and if you're not in the room it
provides no benefit.
Set your thermostat as high as comfortably possible in the
summer. The less difference between the indoor and outdoor
temperatures, the lower your overall cooling bill will be.
Don't set your thermostat at a colder setting than normal
when you turn on your air conditioner. It will not cool your
home any faster and could result in excessive cooling and,
therefore, unnecessary expense.
Consider using an interior fan in conjunction with your
window air conditioner to spread the cooled air more
effectively through your home without greatly increasing
your power use.
Don't place lamps or television sets near your air
conditioning thermostat. The thermostat senses heat from
these appliances which can cause the air conditioner to
run longer than necessary.
Plant trees or shrubs to shade air conditioning units
but be careful not to block the airflow.
Look for the Energy StarTM and EnergyGuide
Editor's Note: These summer
cooling tips are compiled from several sources including Energy
Savers: Tips on Saving Energy and Money at Home. Copies of Energy
Savers are available from Jerry Loos in the Energy Office. This
and other energy saving information is available at
Things to Look for When Buying Air Conditioners
and Heat Pumps
Air Source Heat Pumps
Look for the EnergyGuide label that contains the Seasonal
Energy Efficiency Ratio, or SEER, and Heating Seasonal Performance
Factor, or HSPF. The former measures energy efficiency during the
cooling season and the latter measures energy efficiency during the
heating season. If the heat pump has earned an Energy Star® label,
the product is in the top 25 percent for efficiency. To finance
the purchase of a heat pump with a 5% Dollar and Energy Saving
Loan, the SEER rating must be at least 12.00 and the HSPF must
be at least 7.80.
Central Air Conditioners
Look for the EnergyGuide label with a SEER rating for central
air conditioners. To earn an Energy Star®, the minimum
efficiency level is 12 SEER. These exceed federal energy
efficiency standards by at least 20 percent. Air conditioners
that bear the Energy Star® label may be twice as efficient as
some existing systems. Dollar and Energy Saving Loans can finance
central air conditioners that have a SEER of 12.00 or higher.
Room Air Conditioners
Look for the EnergyGuide label with an Energy Efficiency Ratio,
or EER. The higher the EER, the more efficient the unit. Energy
Star® units are among the most energy efficient products. Room
air conditioners financed with Dollar and Energy Saving Loans must
have an EER of 10.0 or higher.
When buying a room air conditioner, consider these factors:
Buy a correctly sized or slightly undersized unit. The
table below provides a rough guide for sizing room air
conditioners in moderate to poorly insulated buildings.
If your building is well insulated, you should select a unit
with fewer Btus per hour.
Area in Square Feet
100 to 150
150 to 250
250 to 350
350 to 400
400 to 450
450 to 550
550 to 700
700 to 1,000
If the room is very sunny, increase capacity
by 10 percent.
If the unit is for a kitchen, increase the
capacity by 4,000 Btu per hour.
Nebraska's economic development agency is seeking recycling
firms that need investors. The investors, as well as venture
capitalists, bankers, corporate investors, economic and
business developers, will be coming to the second annual
Midwest Recycling Investment Forum in late September in
Recycling firms in Nebraska interested in meeting with
these investors need to apply by June 21 to the state's
Department of Economic Development to be able to present
business plans and display products and services at the
Getting A Once Over
"Firms selected to attend the Investment Forum will have an
opportunity to refine their presentation skills and be
introduced to effective marketing approaches," recycling
economic development advocate Pat Langan said.
Firms applying to attend will be competing against similar
companies in 13 other states that are part of the Mid-America
Council of Recycling Officials. States in the group stretch
from Pennsylvania to Kentucky to Kansas to North Dakota.
The group encourages the development of regionally effective
programs and policies aimed at recycling, market development,
source reduction and recycled content purchases.
The Investment Forum is being held in conjunction with the
National Recycling Coalition's 18th Annual Congress and
Exposition. The Investment Forum is funded by a grant from
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
For more information on the Forum and application materials,
contact Pat Langan at the Department of Economic Development
at 800-426-6505 or 402-471-3766 or by email at
The Nebraska Energy Quarterly
asked about 6% Dollar and Energy Saving Loans.
Loan forms may be obtained from
participating lenders or the Energy Office.
Questions and Answers...
5% Dollar and Energy Saving Loans
Has the maximum interest rate for Dollar
and Energy Saving Loans been lowered?
Yes. Since February 1, 1995, the maximum interest rate for
Dollar and Energy Saving Loans has been 6 percent. However,
long-term interest rates have declined since 1995 and stabilized
at lower levels. To keep loans competitive and continue to provide
incentives for borrowers to make energy efficiency improvements
in their homes and businesses, the interest rate on loans was
reduced to 5 percent effective June 7, 1999.
Loan limits on single family and multi-family homes were also
raised to $25,000 and $75,000 respectively.
Are there even lower rates available for loans for waste
minimization projects in business operations?
Yes. Loans at 2.5 percent are available to Nebraska businesses
and manufacturers, as well as Climate Wise
and Rebuild Nebraska
partners who have facilities in Nebraska to undertake eligible
waste minimization projects. These loans are available for any
projects that are completed and funded by December 31, 1999.
Eligible projects vary from pollution prevention assessments,
projects to reduce air pollution, water pollution and water use
reduction, solid waste reduction, recovery and reuse of solvents
and waste oil, recycling equipment and compaction of waste prior
to landfilling. For more information about these specialized
loans, contact Kirk Conger in the Energy Office.
If an air conditioning system fails during the summer cooling
season, can an immediate replacement be financed with a Dollar
and Energy Saving Loan?
Yes. From April through October, the Energy Office will give
emergency approval, if requested by the lender, for the
installation of qualifying air conditioning equipment before
the loan paperwork is processed. However, emergency approvals
are given only when there is a medical reason to have the air
A request for an emergency approval has to be
accompanied by a statement from the borrower's doctor
describing the medical necessity. In all emergency situations,
the new equipment must meet the minimum standards of performance
listed on Form 3 for the Heating, Cooling and Water Heating
How can buyers and homeowners find out the energy efficiency
of their houses and what improvements could be made to reduce
The Energy Office recently received funds from the U.S.
Department of Energy to establish a home energy rating system
in Nebraska. The Energy Office has certified home energy raters
on staff and will provide a home energy rating on homes in
Nebraska at no cost through the end of the year.
A home energy
rating is a standard measurement of a home's energy efficiency
and requires an on-site inspection by a certified rater. The
energy rating allows the homeowner or buyer to easily compare
energy costs with other homes and to evaluate and pinpoint
cost-effective improvements. The rating is recognized by
mortgage lenders and can be used to include the financing
of energy saving improvements in a first mortgage.
The Energy Office and Fannie Mae are also assisting in the
training and certification of raters elsewhere in Nebraska.
By the end of the year, there will be 40 to 50 certified
raters statewide available to conduct home energy ratings.
After the end of the year, the Energy Office will discontinue
providing ratings at no cost. Those who have been trained
and certified will then conduct ratings for a fee. The Energy
Office will maintain the system, ensure quality control, archive
ratings and train raters.
Contact Jack Osterman in the Energy
Office for more information on home energy ratings.
Energy efficient mortgages are a type of mortgage
that credits a home's energy efficiency in the
financing of its purchase.
Two illustrations of an energy mortgage include:
Allowing the borrower a greater debt to income
Giving the buyer the ability to acquire a higher
For homes where the energy efficiency can be improved,
an energy mortgage allows the dollar savings from
lower utility bills to finance energy improvements.
Energy efficient mortgages have their origins after the
second oil shock. In the early 1980s, the federal
government sought ways to increase energy efficiency
The four major national lenders:
the Veterans Administration,
Housing and Urban Development,
Freddie Mac, and
began programs that focused on solar energy and other
home improvements that were made before the close of escrow.
Demand for the mortgages in the 1980s languished because
of lack of awareness, improvements had to be made before
funding approval restrictions on the types of improvements.
However, demand for the mortgages increased in the 1990s
because of increased emphasis by the federal government and
significant changes by the lenders.
Stretching the Limits
Initially, energy efficient mortgages were simple two
percentage point stretches, allowing borrowers of energy
efficient homes to increase their debt to income ratio by
two percent because of the lower utility costs.
An example of the two percentage stretch is illustrated
Example of Two Percent Stretch
Energy Efficient Mortgage
Increased Purchasing Power
Source: Energy Rated Homes
of Alaska, Inc.
Now, energy efficient mortgages offered through the
Department of Housing and Urban Development and the
Federal Housing Administration allow buyers to finance
the energy efficiency of a new home above its appraised
value when the home energy rating exceeds the standards
in the Model Energy Code. This allows buyers
to purchase homes with prices that exceed Federal
Housing Administration limits.
Energy Improvement Mortgage
Another type of energy mortgage is an energy
improvement mortgage. Generally, these mortgages
are used for existing homes, not newly-built ones.
This mortgage provides financing for cost effective
improvements, recommended in an energy audit or home
energy rating at the time of sale or refinancing.
Typically, an energy rater inspects the home and makes
recommendations on cost effective improvements. The funds
for the improvements are placed into an escrow account by
the lending institution. The homeowner has a minimum of
three months after closing to make the improvements.
A post-improvement rating is performed on the home to
verify the energy savings. The lending institution then
releases the escrow funds to pay for materials and labor
and the total cost is added to the mortgage loan. The
Federal Housing Administration and Veterans Administration
are two entities that offer these mortgages.
Income Limited Mortgages
The Energy Office offers an energy improvement mortgage
for those with limited incomes.
The below market rate weatherization mortgage typically
finances improvements such as attic and wall insulation,
new furnaces, caulking and weatherstripping.
"Getting a weatherization mortgage is very simple,"
Pete Davis of the Nebraska Energy Office said. "The
lender verifies a person's income, then an energy
audit is conducted on the home the borrower wants
to buy and finally an energy audit professional makes
recommendations to reduce energy use."
For more information about Mortgage Supplements,
contact Pete Davis in the
The Energy Office has extra copies of the Energy Efficient
Mortgage Training Handbook used in the recently held
"Financing and Selling Home Energy Efficiency" workshop
conducted by Mortgage Training Services and the Kansas
Building Science Institute and co-sponsored by Fannie
The Handbook is designed as a learning guide for mortgage
lenders and real estate professionals.
To receive free copies of the Handbook, please contact
Jack Osterman in the Energy Office.
Copies of the Energy Office's popular guide,
40 Ways to Finance Your Improvements,
“40 Ways” focuses on
financing options for making energy efficiency and
pollution prevention improvements. The guide examines
four basic financing methods:
alternative financing options, and
community based sources.
Profiles of each financing source include eligibility,
amount limits and other features. Contacts for
additional information about the financing options
are also listed as well as web sites, if available.
To obtain free copies of 40 Ways to Finance Your
Improvements, contact Jack
Osterman in the Energy Office.
The International Energy Conservation Code, or IECC,
is the successor to the Model Energy Code, or MEC.
The Model Code was developed by a number of building
code organizations and used as a basis for many state
and local energy conservation building codes from 1983
to 1995. The International Code Council now maintains
the nation's primary model energy code, which has been
renamed the IECC.
The code was developed with the goal of conserving
energy without unnecessarily increasing construction
costs,restricting the use of new materials, products
or methods of construction, or giving preferential
treatment to particular types of materials, products
or methods of construction.
It may be adopted and enforced by a local or state
jurisdiction. The code is updated regularly based on
comments from code officials and other interested parties.
The 1998 IECC code requirements are essentially the
same as the 1995 MEC. Explanatory material has been
added to clarify some requirements. As with the MEC,
the ASHRAE/IES 90.1 Code is adopted by reference to
govern commercial construction. A new Chapter 7 has
been added to simplify requirements for smaller
Although Nebraska law still references the 1983 Model
Energy Code in areas where a more stringent local code
has not been adopted, the 1983 code requirements are
so minimal that standard construction practices have
made the code obsolete. The Energy Office uses the
1995 Model Energy Code as the basis for reduced
interest-rate mortgages and other incentives for
energy efficient construction.
The IECC is available from Kirk Conger in the Nebraska
Energy Office at no cost. [Note: As of December 2002,
copies of the IECC are not available from the Energy
Office] It may also be ordered from BOCA International
at 800-214-4321, extension 720 for $25.
"After winning the Secretary of the Army's energy conservation
award four years in a row at the National Guard level, Nebraska
placed tenth out of 187 nominations for a Certificate of
Recognition during the annual Defense Department energy
"This is the first time ever that the Nebraska Army Guard's
energy program has been recognized at the federal level. It
was also the first time that a National Guard organization
has placed among the top ten government organizations at the
Department of Defense level."
Prairie Soldier Nebraska National Guard newsletter, February 1999
Editor's note: For two of the
four years the Nebraska Guard won awards, the Energy Office
provided $70,000 in assistance to help the organization find
ways through energy audits to reduce its energy costs.
The Nebraska Energy Office encourages readers to
utilize these Internet resources.
The Internet sites listed should
not be construed as advocating or representing
of the Energy Office nor does the agency guarantee the
content or accuracy of any information available at these sites.
The Energy Information Administration's Kid's Page is a
collection of energy facts, figures and fun for students
in grades 3 through 8. The web site features comprehensive
overviews of all energy sources, a 15 question energy quiz
and a series of virtual visits to energy facilities such
as an oil refinery, nuclear power plant, coal mine liquefied
natural gas storage facility and a plant that turns garbage
The Department of Energy's State Alternatives web site is
an invaluable tool for locating renewable energy resources
and projects. Answers on solar, wind, biomass and geothermal
assessments for each of the 50 states is only a click away.
The site also details each state's electric utility sector
by providing rates and fuel resources used to produce
electricity, emissions and more. The information on current
Nebraska renewable energy projects provides links to wind
projects in Springview and Lincoln. All in all, this web site
is an excellent one-stop source for a renewable energy
overview of any state.
A new web site, Nevada Energy Efficient Housing Connection,
is now available on the Internet. The Connection presents
complete and concise information on the benefits of residential
energy efficiency, building energy codes, the Model Energy Code
and links to other building code web sites. One nifty tool,
the Model Energy Code Check, or MECcheck, computer software is
downloadable. This simple program can help you determine whether
a house complies with the model energy code based on the square
footage, R-values of walls, windows and ceilings and the
performance of heating and cooling systems.
RESNET (Residential Energy
The American Wind Energy Association has added a number of
new tools to its web site that will help visitors access
current wind energy industry information. The new tools
include Association members and a map of the United States
locations of all major wind energy projects in 18 states
with links for specific project information on each project.
American Wind Energy
A new, powerful simulation tool for consumers, Home
Energy Savers, will help homeowners and renters identify
the best technologies to save both energy and money. The
software computes a home's total energy use based on
information supplied by the consumer. After providing
a zip code, a quick and easy quiz is generated which
allows the computer to calculate current energy bills
for a home. The software also points to the savings a
consumer can achieve with a few simple home improvements.
The more information entered such as the number of occupants,
the type of heating and air conditioning equipment and fuel
prices the more these recommendations become tailored to the
house. Time-saving links to hundreds of web sites with practical,
detailed information about energy efficient homes, products,
service providers such as the Nebraska Energy Office and
on-line materials are also a part of the web site.
Information Services and Resources
The Department of Energy’s
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
(EERE) provides fact sheets, brochures, videos
and publications on energy efficiency and renewable
Office of the Assistant Secretary
Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
Mail Stop EE-1
Department of Energy
Washington, DC 20585
Two new publications by the U.S. Department of
Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory make it easier for
people to purchase solar energy systems and tap into energy
from the sun.
The Borrower's Guide to Financing Solar
Energy Systems provides information for
lenders and consumers about nationwide financing
programs for photovoltaic systems and solar thermal
systems that heat indoor air and water. In addition
to traditional sources for home mortgage funds, eight
federal government organizations - Fannie Mae, Freddie
Mac, U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S Department
of Energy, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban
Development, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Small Business
Administration offer programs for financing solar energy
systems and other energy efficiency improvements.
The Guide includes a glossary and a two-page
capsule of all federal financing options.
The Colorado Consumer's Guide to Buying A Solar
Electric System provides basic information about
the who, what and why of financing, purchasing and
installing photovoltaic or solar electric systems.
While the Consumer's Guide is specific to
Colorado, it does include essential information on solar
systems such as evaluating if your home is a good candidate
for an installation, how to estimate dollar savings and
how much systems cost. Other sections in the Consumer's
Guide address selecting a contractor and things to
consider before attaching your solar system to a utility
To obtain copies of these publications, contact the
National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Document
Distribution Service at 303-275-4363 or by email
In accordance with the American Disabilities
Act, the state will provide reasonable
accommodation to persons with disabilities. If
you need reasonable accommodation to participate
in any program or activity listed in this
publication, please contact the Energy Office
at 402-471-2186 to coordinate arrangements.
Upon request, this publication may be available
in alternative formats.
This material was prepared with the support of
the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grant No.
DE-FG47-92CE60410. However, any opinions, findings,
conclusions, or recommendations expressed herein
are those of the author and do not necessarily
reflect the views of DOE.