Editor's Note: The last time
discussion of deregulation of the state's electric industry
appeared in the Quarterly was the Spring 1997 issue
when the legislative study was just getting underway.
Will Nebraska Alter Its Customer-Owned Electric System?
For several years, many at the state and
have been predicting Americans would be choosing their
electric company much like they select a long-distance
carrier. They nicknamed this "the breakup of the last big
monopoly" or "the battle of the Baby Bulbs." But in Nebraska
that option could be far into the future, according to a new
For the past three years, a group of 50 Task Force members
have been looking at the state's unique power structure -
the only state where the ratepayers own all the electric
systems - and how to adapt to changes happening in the
electric industries in other states.
24% Below the Average
In September, the Task Force released its preliminary
findings and recommendations for consideration by the
Legislature. One key recommendation was for the state to
identify market conditions that must be met before any
consumer in Nebraska's structure could be changed. Because
the average rates in the state are already 24 percent below
the national average, the study group felt few would benefit
from opening the state's electric system to competition.
In other states that have opted for competitive electric
systems, consumers have either benefited from very small
mandated rate reductions - usually five to ten percent -
or seen their rates rise.
In California, where hundreds of millions of dollars were
spent to explain the new system to ratepayers and in advertising
by new electric companies, about one percent of the state's
residential customers changed electric companies. An estimated
20 percent of the largest customers, however, have switched
electricity providers. Today, because of stranded assets
and transition costs, some residential customers are actually
paying more for electricity than under the utility monopoly
Under the study group's proposal, competition would only be
allowed in Nebraska when the wholesale cost of electricity
surpassed average regional costs. The group also recommends
that the state's Power Review Board examine and propose the
conditions triggering restructuring and how such a restructured
industry would function. The report suggests that additional
changes to laws may be necessary.
Federal Mandate Uncertain
Despite trying for several years, Congress has been unable to
craft legislation encompassing nationwide restructuring of the
electric industry. In part, this is because a quarter of the nation's
customers is served by publicly owned systems. Public ownership was
not a factor when other industries: telephones, airlines and natural
gas, for example, were deregulated. Another factor is that electricity
is deemed far more essential than these other services.
The latest Congressional hearings on proposed legislation have
focused on how to resolve tax issues between privately and
publicly owned systems. While a House of Representatives
subcommittee did forward legislation, experts have predicted
it will not be widely supported without substantial changes.
The Senate has already abandoned the issue for this year.
Previously considered items such as federally mandated
restructuring and opening of electric markets by a certain
date have been abandoned.
Things to Ponder
Status of States
Group 1: Restructuring legislation enacted
Arizona, Arkansas, California,
Connecticut, Delaware, Illinois,
Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts,
Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire,
New Jersey, New Mexico, Ohio,
Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania,
Rhode Island, Texas, and Virginia
Group 2: Comprehensive Regulatory Order Issued
Michigan, New York, and Vermont
Group 3: Legislation / Orders Pending
Group 4: Commission or Legislative Investigation Ongoing
Alabama, Alaska, Colorado,
District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia,
Hawaii, Idaho, Indiana,
Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky,
Louisiana, Minnesota, Mississippi,
Missouri, Nebraska, North Carolina,
South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee,
Utah, Washington, West Virginia,
Wisconsin, and Wyoming
The Advisory Group made a number of recommendations
that may be considered by the Natural Resources
Committee or the full Legislature:
A new market system must have mechanisms in place so
prices are fair, just and reasonable for all consumers.
There must also be a statewide body so prerequisites to
a competitive market are in place before moving to the
Adequate consumer protection mechanisms must be in
place prior to moving to retail competition, including
a statewide oversight agency, and provisions for a
consumer bill of rights, consumer education and
protections from abusive marketing practices.
Availability, affordability, reliability, efficiency,
quality, safety, environmental protection and opportunity
for economic development must be maintained or enhanced.
These features should be available in a competitive market
through a combination of regulated and competitive market
elements . with local, state, regional and possibly federal
Principal benefits and elements of public power, including
low costs and local control, should be preserved.
Benefits of integrated resources planning, including
demand-side management, conservation and renewable resources,
should be preserved.
Existing environmental, financial and contractual
commitments should be honored. The new structure should
fold in commitments and contracts during the transition
period and mitigation should allow recovery of stranded
costs and benefits. These commitments to be honored include
reasonable employee programs for early retirement, retraining,
severance pay and adequate transition time.
All electric suppliers should have the flexibility
to offer products, services, prices, terms and conditions
that meet unique and diverse customer needs. To be
competitive, incumbent electric suppliers should have
the opportunity to offer other services.
All suppliers of electricity to Nebraska consumers are to
be subject to fair and consistent laws, rules and regulations,
including public access to information.
Price information should be public knowledge, competitors
should be able to keep commodity cost information confidential.
A statewide oversight agency should have sufficient access to
confidential information to ensure against abusive market
If retail competition is allowed in Nebraska, all electric
suppliers should have the authority to conduct retail electric
operations and provide products and services outside of Nebraska.
Products and services offered outside of the state should not be
at the detriment of Nebraska electricity consumers.
There should be a comprehensive plan implemented in
step-by-step process that allows for meeting step goals
before moving to next step.
Legislature should allow decisions by voters and
local boards and commissions for electric systems to
opt out of or into restructuring.
As part of a comprehensive plan to make a transition to
retail competition, the Legislature should determine criteria
and standards for divestiture of utility asset sales to private
entities. The state should not mandate divestiture. The
decision to divest should be at the local level. Municipals
and cooperatives currently have these rights. Consider extending
right-of-first-refusal to public power agencies for purchasing
assets being divested.
In terms of timing, waiting for federal standards may
not be prudent if the market moves faster than legislation.
A better trigger point is having certain regional or state
conditions met; such as when an open, competitive, efficient
generating/wholesale market is in place in the region,
oversight agencies are in place, and it can be demonstrated
that all consumers will benefit from retail competition.
The preferred approach would be to set target dates for
achieving discrete market steps. The process would not move
forward without achieving the trigger mechanism goals for
each step. Possible steps could include satisfactory
development of regional wholesale market mechanisms such as
an independent system operator, generator competition and
vibrant wholesale energy market. Other steps should include
having appropriate state oversight and public protection
agencies in place.
Mergers should be voluntary, with decisions made at
the local board level.
Alliances should be encouraged. Multiple service
provisions involving alliances should also be encouraged.
Local actions needed to preserve Nebraska's options
in considering structural and operational changes include:
maintain local control authority for significant decisions
involving participation in retail competition.
State actions needed to preserve and enhance Nebraska's
options in considering structural and operational changes
include: remove barriers from consumer-owned utilitys'
ability to compete; take away barriers to divestiture of
assets and expand participation of the Nebraska Power Review
Board in current national debate on competition in electricity;
qualify existing Nebraska hydroelectric resources as renewable.
Regional actions needed to preserve Nebraska's options in
considering structural and operational changes include:
delineate role of Nebraska Power Review Board for regional
transmission and power exchange organizations and remove
state barriers to public power participation in regional
Federal actions needed to preserve Nebraska's options
in considering structural and operational changes, include:
maintain preference power; maintain tax-exempt debt for asset
financing; support opt-out/opt-in choice for federal customer
choice legislation; and support Nebraska hydropower to qualify
as renewable in proposed federal portfolio standards.
The Natural Resources Committee of the Legislature will
likely have a hearing on the recommendations during the next
session which begins in early January. Bills implementing the
study group's recommendtions may also be considered.
The complete text of the legislative task force's preliminary
report can be found at the Energy Office's web site at
Nebraska Energy Office.
“Nebraska is the only state in the country entirely served by
public power. This means no utilities operate to generate a profit,
with responsibilities to stockholders. Instead, Nebraska utilities
are responsiblie to the citizens of the state, and operate
in their best interests. Electric service is clearly in the
public service. Reliable and affordable energy service is
absolutely essential to the survival of rural citizens of
Nebraska. At the same time, every community in the state,
from Omaha to Chadron, deserves economical electricity to
meet their demands.”
“Public power has a unique role to play in Nebraska.
It helps keep many smaller communities thriving. The
infrastructure to provide electricity to less populated
parts of the state can be expensive. One of the major
reasons public power developed in Nebraska was to ensure
these communities are served economically and reliably.
We must not forget these roots.”
Nebraska Governor Mike Johanns
Excerpted from a guest editorial issued during Public
Feds Say Natural Gas and Propane To Cost More This Winter
In October, the federal government renewed its
that consumers will pay more than last year for natural gas
and propane used to heat homes this winter. Both higher costs
for fuel - propane and natural gas - and a return to more
normal wintertime weather were cited as factors.
Nationally, consumers could pay between $120 to $390 more than
last year for propane, depending on the severity of the wintertime
temperatures. An average of $230 or more in higher propane costs was
predicted by the federal agency. For households using propane, a 36
percent rise in heating costs was projected.
Since July, the federal agency has been predicting higher natural
gas prices as well. The latest Outlook projected natural gas wellhead
prices could be 40 percent higher than last winter. The impact on
Nebraska consumers might not be as severe since a significant portion
of the retail price is made up of transportation and other costs not
expected to change with the wellhead price.
The agency also noted the unusual volatility of natural gas
prices since August. However, both import levels and storage
supplies of natural gas are nearly equal to last year. Because
of adequate supply levels, the agency expected natural gas
prices to remain below $3 per thousand cubic feet, except
during periods of extremely cold weather.
A 19 percent rise in heating costs was projected for those using
natural gas for home heating.
The agency said supplies of both natural gas and propane should
be sufficient to meet normal wintertime demands.
The latest Short-Term Energy Outlookfrom the Energy
Information Administration projected that increased demand
and much higher prices for propane and natural gas used for
heating would result in higher bills for homeowners.
Historically, the electric industry has been
comprised of three units: generation, transmission and
Generation is the component that produces electricity, usually
from nuclear, coal, natural gas or hydropower resources.
Transmission moves the electricity from the generating stations
over high volume towers closer to the point of use. Distribution
is comprised of local lines that move the electricity from the
tall towers to homes and businesses. Many times in Nebraska,
snow, wind and ice storms have destroyed distribution lines,
but rarely transmission lines.
Many states have decided to require electric companies to
choose what type of business they want to operate: generation,
transmission or distribution. In essence, transmission and
distribution will still be operated as monopolies and only
generation will be opened to competition.
Native Nebraskans could have told the scientists it
Nebraskans for generations have known the winds on the Plains were
powerful. Now, wind speed monitors have confirmed what locals already
knew: it's windy enough on the Plains to produce lots and lots of
At the end of the study, Springview and Valentine in north central
Nebraska claimed the title as the best prospects for wind-to-electricity
generators. The least windy spots studied were Winnebago in northeast
Nebraska and Wahoo, near Lincoln.
For four years, eight sites across the state were monitored,
season-in and season-out, 24 hours a day. Monitoring equipment
was even placed at different heights in the same location. The
goal at each site was the same: to find out where and when wind
speeds in the state were the greatest and consistent.
In fact, according to Global Energy Concepts, which performed
the study, all the Nebraska locations have sufficient wind
resources for a large wind farm capable of generating 10
megawatts or larger. The annual average wind speeds ranged
from 14.4 to 16.4 miles an hour.
Slow Speed, Greatest Need
Seasonally, spring and fall produced the strongest, consistent
wind speeds. The slowest winds were recorded in July and August
during summer's peak, when the electricity need is usually the
The wind study cost $336,000 and was paid for by a $74,428
grant from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, a $59,600
from the Utility Wind Interest Group, a $10,000 grant from
the American Public Power Association and the balance from
major utilities including Omaha Public Power District,
Nebraska Public Power District, Lincoln Electric System,
Nebraska Municipal Power Pool, Southern Nebraska Rural
Public Power District, Loup River Public Power District,
Niobrara Valley Electric Member Corp., Nebraska Electric
G & T Coop, Inc., Wayne County Public Power District,
Norris Public Power District, Central Nebraska Public
Power and Irrigation District and Tri-State G & T
A copy of the complete wind study is available at the
Nebraska Energy Office's web site,
Nebraska Energy Office.
Four turbines _ two in Springview and two near Lincoln
_ are generating electricity in the state. However, much
larger wind turbine projects are operating or under
construction in Minnesota, Iowa, Wyoming and Colorado.
By 2009, Texas plans on producing 2,000 megawatts of
electricity from turbines.
According to the federal energy department, about 1,000
megawatts of wind-to-electricity was constructed last
year, making windpower the fastest growing renewable energy
resource in America.
Is wind a viable energy source in Nebraska?
Students can chart
real-life data from nine monitoring wind locations in the state.
Critical thinking skills are needed to deal with such issues as:
Is there enough data? What seasons have more wind potential? What
seasons have the highest demand for electricity? Which location
would you recommend for a wind turbine? Would you pay more for
electricity generated from renewable sources?
This math-based exercise is designed for students grades 5-8
and is offered by Nebraska Public Power District. To obtain
a copy of Power in the Wind, contact any of the District's
regional consumer education specialists or visit the utility's
web site at NPPD "Power in the Wind".
Printed copies of "Power in the Wind" are limited.
The U.S. Department of Energy has recently
redesigned its wind power web site.
It now features animated graphics on how wind turbines work.
These turbine graphics also include cutaway diagrams that clearly
illustrate how turbines produce electricity.
The site is ideal for teachers and students. Other aspects
include the basics of wind energy, projects funded by the
federal government, current turbine technology and research
and links to other wind energy sites.
By 2020, the federal energy department aims to have
five percent of the nation's electricity come from wind, up from
one-tenth of one percent from wind power today.
According to national and
international energy sources, wind generated electricity has become
the fastest growing energy source in the world. Presently, all
the wind turbines in the country can generate only 2,500 megawatts.
The power from the wind turbines is about three times the amount
of power produced at Cooper Nuclear Station near Brownville,
Renewable energy experts agree that wind is the most cost
competitive with traditional sources such as coal, natural gas,
oil and nuclear. Currently, the price of a kilowatthour from a
wind turbine costs about five cents. In the 1970s, the cost of
the same amount of power from wind cost 40 cents or more. The
Energy Department believes the cost of production must fall
about two cents a kilowatthour in the first part of the
next century for the goal to be reached in 2020.
Tomorrow's industries in Nebraska could be
wind-to-electricity farms. That's what a federal energy
lab study suggests in a recent report.
"Choices for a Brighter Future" says the seven states in the
Midwest Region - including Nebraska - could potentially generate
5.4 trillion kilowatt-hours of electricity from wind turbines.
That's nearly twice the electricity used in the United States
All states in the region, except Missouri, have more than enough
wind energy available to meet all their electrical needs. Nebraska,
for example, could become a net exporter of electricity since it has
the potential of producing nearly three and a half times the power
needed by the seven state region.
Increasing your lighting efficiency is one
of the fastest
ways to decrease your energy bills. If you replace your
lights in high-use areas with fluorescents, you can save
about 50 percent of your lighting energy costs.
Use linear fluorescent and energy efficient compact
fluorescent lamps in fixtures throughout your home to
provide high quality and high efficiency lighting.
Fluorescent lamps are much more efficient than incandescent
bulbs and last six to ten times longer. Although fluorescent
and compact fluorescent lamps are more expensive than
incandescent bulbs, they pay for themselves by saving
energy over their lifetime.
Turn off the lights in any room you're not using,
or consider installing timers, photocells, or occupancy
sensors to reduce the amount of time your lights are on.
Use task lighting; instead of brightly lighting an entire
room, focus the light where you need it. For example, use
fluorescent under-cabinet lighting for kitchen sinks and
countertops under cabinets.
Consider three-way lamps; they make it easier to keep
lighting levels low when brighter light is not necessary.
Use four-foot fluorescent fixtures with reflectors and
electronic ballasts for your workroom, garage and laundry
Consider using four-watt mini-fluorescent or
electro-luminescent night lights. Both lights are much
more efficient than their incandescent counterparts.
The luminescent lights are cool to the touch.
Use compact fluorescent lamps in all the portable table
and floor lamps in your home. Consider carefully the size
and fit of these systems when you select them. Some home
fixtures may not accommodate some of the larger compact
When shopping for new light fixtures, consider compact
fluorescent lamps with reflectors. The lamps range in wattage
from 13-watt to 32-watt and provide a very directed light using
a reflector and lens system.
Take advantage of daylight by using light-colored,
loose-weave curtains on your windows to allow daylight
to penetrate the room while preserving privacy.
Decorate with lighter colors that reflect daylight
and/or electric light. u If you have torchiere fixtures
with halogen lamps, consider replacing them with compact
fluorescent torchieres. Compact fluorescent torchieres
use 60 percent to 80 percent less energy, can produce
more light and do not get as hot as the halogen torchieres.
Look for the Energy Star label when purchasing these products.
"Energy Star Bulbs represent the cutting edge in lighting
technology and bring long life, brightness and savings into
any family's home," Energy Secretary Bill Richardson said when
launching the Energy Star lighting effort. Energy Star compact
fluorescent lights must have a minimum lifetime of 6,000 hours,
though many Energy Star light bulbs are rated for 10,000 hours
of use - that's seven years of use at four hours per day for
every day. The bulbs do not need to "warm up," and come in a wide
range of styles, shapes and wattage values. Specifics on lighting
specifications and products can be found at
A portion of the above article was excerpted from Energy Savers:
Tips on Saving Energy & Money at Home. Readers can contact
Jerry Loos in the Energy Office for free copies of Energy Savers,
or additional tips can be found at the U.S. Department of Energy web
This is the last chance to obtain free
copies of the
Energy Office's popular financing guide, 40 Ways to
Finance Your Improvements, that was revised,
enlarged and updated for 1999.
The Guide focuses on financing options for making energy
efficiency and pollution prevention improvements. The Guide
also examines four basic financing methods: self-financing,
direct borrowing, alternative financing techniques and
community-based financing. To aid users, the guide is
divided into sections that focus on building or operating
commercial, manufacturing and industrial
all types of buildings
Each financing source is profiled in terms of eligibility,
borrowing limits and other features. Contacts for additional
information about the financing option are also listed as
well as web sites, if available.
To obtain free copies of 40 Ways to Finance Your
Improvements, contact Jack Osterman in the Energy
Office or by email at Jack Osterman
The Nebraska Energy Quarterly features
questions asked about 6% Dollar and Energy Saving Loans.
Loan forms may be obtained from participating
lenders or the Energy Office.
Questions and Answers...
5% Dollar and Energy Saving Loans
A borrower is considering improvements
that include replacement
of doors and windows, siding and roof repair. Which forms need to be
completed and submitted with the loan application?
Siding or roof repair can only be done in conjunction with
adding wall insulation or attic or ceiling insulation, respectively.
The application form - Door, Window, Wall and Ceiling Projects,
Form 2 - must be completed and submitted by the borrower for all
the projects listed on that form, including wall, attic and ceiling
insulation and insulated doors, glass doors and thermal windows.
In addition to Form 2, the borrower and contractor
and submit Form 2 Siding, if the frame wall insulation project
includes siding; Form 2 Roofing, if the attic or ceiling insulation
project includes roof repair or replacement; and Form 2, Window/Door
if the project is for the replacement of thermal windows or
exterior glass or insulated doors. If the insulation project does not
include siding or roofing, or if it is for storm windows or doors,
the applicant only needs to complete and submit Form 2 and
supplemental forms are not needed.
I know some Nebraskans have not heard of Dollar
and Energy Saving
Loans. How are they publicized and how can one access information
and application forms?
Loans are typically promoted by lenders, businesses
companies that keep information on hand for their customers. Some
entities also mail out loan statement stuffers, provided to them
by the Energy Office, to their customers. The Energy Office also
fulfills information requests and keeps lenders informed of
new developments and supplied with loan materials. Information
on the loans, including updated forms, is available on the Energy
Office's web site.
Which lenders offer Dollar and Energy
A participating lender must be a Nebraska bank, savings
institution, or credit union. A majority of the lenders
in the state offer these loans. The Energy Office encourages
anyone interested in one of the loans to talk to a local bank,
savings institution, or credit union in their community to find
out if that lender offers Dollar and Energy Saving Loans.
If the lender does not offer the loans,
the Energy Office
can provide information on lenders in your area can help
you. You can also find lenders in your area by visiting
the Energy Office's web site. The loan section of the web
site now has a search engine that can find lenders in
your area for you.
Energy Saving Appliances and More Are Just a Click Away
If you are planning to replace a major appliance
and cooling equipment, you've probably searched newspaper
ads looking for the best prices. Now, there are several other
places to look that could save you hundreds of dollars more.
Consumers who want to know which products are the most energy
efficient can quickly access and download lists of information
on top-rated refrigerators, clothes washers, dishwashers, room
and central air conditioners and heat pumps. Within the next
several months, the best furnaces, boilers and water heaters
will be added to the list.
When you buy a refrigerator, you are not only paying for the
appliance, but also the operating cost for as long as you
own it. Over the life of the appliance, the operating cost
can be many times the original price of the equipment.
For example, replacing a 15-year-old refrigerator with a
top-rated new model will typically save $50 to $100 in
electricity bills each year. Savings from an energy-efficient
clothes washer could easily reach $750 to $1,200 during the
washer's lifetime. The list contains 12 clothes washer models
from 5 different manufacturers that could easily achieve these
The Council's list of energy efficient products is compiled
from directories and manufacturer's data. Only models that
are widely distributed in the United States are reviewed for
inclusion on the list.
Replacing a vintage furnace can reap a
bagfull of money
according to Nebraskans who did just that.
In the first four years when Dollar and Energy Saving Loans
became available, 114 Nebraska homeowners replaced their natural
gas furnace with one that was more than 90 percent efficient.
The Energy Office then began surveying energy use in those
homes with new furnaces. On average, the new high efficiency
furnaces reduced natural gas use by more than 20 percent,
saving about $140 a year.
During this century, America's dependence
became a dominant factor in its development and economy.
At the dawn of the century, all of the nation's needs
were met domestically. But by the end of the century,
more than half the nation's needs were met by oil imported
from other nations, especially OPEC members which accounted
for nearly half of all imports for the first six months of
Some of the more significant events in the development of
the oil industry during the 20th century are listed below.
1908 Oil is discovered in Persia, now called Iran.
This find begins a century-long trend of exploration and production in
the Middle East.
1938 Oil is found in Saudi Arabia. This once
impoverished nation of nomads will soon become the world's largest
1943 Venezuela became the first nation to
demand and get an equal share of the profits from oil produced
on its soil. Over time, actions in other countries would lead
to the nationalization of oil company operations.
1947 The world's first off-shore well begins
production 10 miles off the Louisiana shoreline in the Gulf of
1960 The Organization of Petroleum Exporting
Countries, or OPEC, is created. Over time,
the original 11 members exert control over the oil production
and prices oil companies previously controlled.
1973 Arabic nations embargo oil shipments
to the United States and other countries. Oil supplies in
America are disrupted and prices soar.
1978 The Shah is deposed in Iran, and oil
prices skyrocket when the world's second-largest oil exporter
cuts production by 75 percent.
Want to know how many miles a gallon a Ferrari 550
Maranello gets, even if you can't afford one? Or, if
you want to compare the fuel economy of different vehicles
visit the federal government's Fuel Economy website. The
web site contains an interactive version of the Fuel Economy
Guide: Model Year 2000.
These Guides have frequently helped consumers compare the
gas mileage of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks,
minivans, sport utility vehicles and special purpose vehicles.
Web site visitors can also find gas mileage data by class of
vehicle, or by manufacturer, search for vehicles that have
specific mileage performance and find out which cars get the
best and worst mileage in their respective classes.
In the past, the federal government has produced printed
copies of the Guide, but since the information can be printed
from the web site, traditionally printed copies of the Guide
may not be available.
Information on the fuel economies of 2000 Model Year vehicles,
compiled by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Transportation
Technologies from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency data, can
be found at Fuel Economy
Energy Education Resources: Kindergarten
Through 12th Grade
More than 150 organizations, government agencies, utilities,
industries and foundations that offer free or low-cost energy-related
educational materials for students, educators and information users
are listed in Energy Education Resources: Kindergarten Through 12th
Each listing in Resources includes the address, telephone number,
description of the organization and the type of materials available.
Most of the listings include Internet and electronic mail addresses.
Copies of Resources are available from the National Energy Information
Center, EI-30, Energy Information Administration, Room 1E-238, Forrestal
Building, 1000 Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, DC 20585,
phone 202-586-8800 or email to
In accordance with the American Disabilities
Act, the state will provide reasonable
accommodation to persons with disabilities. If
you need reasonable accommodation to participate
in any program or activity listed in this
publication, please contact the Energy Office
at 402-471-2186 to coordinate arrangements.
Upon request, this publication may be available
in alternative formats.
This material was prepared with the support of
the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grant No.
DE-FG47-92CE60410. However, any opinions, findings,
conclusions, or recommendations expressed herein
are those of the author and do not necessarily
reflect the views of DOE.